Research: Catastrophic Injury in High School Sports

football-tackleFor several decades, researchers have collected and tracked data on serious incidences of catastrophic head, brain and neck injuries in high school and college level sports. This data has been scientifically collected and recorded nationally, from school coaches, athletic trainers and directors, and executive officers of state and national athletic organizations.

In 1984, research from the Annual Survey of Football Injury Research added neck injuries and brain injuries involving permanent disabilities to the fatality data collection effort. Fatal head injuries have been reported in other sports like wrestling, soccer, baseball and track sports in addition to football. Traumatic brain injuries in common contact sports number into hundreds of thousands each year, with football totals exceeding 250,000 concussions alone.

A study of the epidemiology of football related concussions in high school and college sports players released by AMJ Sports Medical, 2000;28:643-650, by Guskiewicz, KM; Weaver, NL; Padua, DA; and Garrett, WE, Jr.; found football players who had concussions in one season were 33.3 percent likely to have a second concussion that same season than any uninjured player.

Repeated concussions occurring in a short time can be fatal. The Center for Disease Control, and Prevention, or CDC, report a high incidence of repeated sports related head injuries. Sports-related traumatic brain injuries occurring annually have reached over 300,000 in the United States.

The mortality and morbidity rate associated in these traumatic head injuries have been called the “silent epidemic” because they are not recognized with the same attention as other neurological illnesses in children and youth.

“Second-impact syndrome”, identifies rapid brain swelling with herniation, which occurs in a second head injury, is increasingly detrimental to athletes. This problem often results in fatal or non-fatal with permanent, severe functional disability in teens and youth.

Injuries related to sports participation are considered to be:

  • Direct – resulting from participation in the skills of high school or college sponsored sports.
  • Indirect – injuries from systemic failure due to exertion while participating in sports activities or by complications secondary to a non-fatal injury.

Catastrophic injuries are not limited to male sport-related fatalities or permanent disabilities. Gymnastics, cheerleading, field hockey, softball, volleyball and other sports have been associated fatalities and permanent disabilities in female athletic students as well as male athletic students. Fifty percent of catastrophic injuries are related to females participating in cheerleading alone.

A catastrophic injury such as traumatic head or brain injury, spinal cord injury causing paralysis, amputation, compound fractures, blindness or fatal injuries require intensive emergency care, ongoing medical care in non-fatal injuries, and this expensive care may be required for the patient’s entire lifetime.

The expenses of caring for a child with severe and permanent disabilities add substantial impact to a grieving family. Legal representation is a strong solution for helping a family hit with unexpected financial costs when a child is severely disabled or fatally injured during school sports activities.

A case at Caro High School, in Michigan, reported by The New York Times article, October 10, 2014, involved so many football players injured this season alone, that school coaches asked their administrators to cancel the final three games this season. Caro High’s varsity football team lost so many players due to injuries, that 8 Jr. Varsity players were moved up, causing the Jr. Varsity to cancel their season. Several concussions and other injuries causing four players to quit within two weeks. The remaining team members were found to be in danger because they were battling so hard to compensate for the team’s disintegration from top-player injuries.

With all this, community reaction was mixed, and fifty percent of the people said, “You don’t ever quit, kids are soft these days and need to get out there and battle.” This type of mind-set is another reason families with injured children need to seek help from legal representation.

When the vote came down to end the football season early, Mike Joslyn, superintendent of the Caro School system was quoted as saying, “…we’re an educational institution, and with our students, safety comes first. These kids have long lives ahead of them, and we need to keep the brains in their heads intact.”

Death Rates of Motorcyle Accident Victims

The number of motorcycles on the road each year is steadily increasing. In 2011, the total number of motorcycles on the highway in the United States was 8,437,502. Using that number, almost 3 percent of all registered vehicles on the road are motorcycles.



When it comes to accidents and crashes, there are several statistics concerning motorcycles that are very sobering. For instance, the cause of death for individuals involved in motorcycle fatalities is a head injury. It is estimated that 40 percent of all motorcycle deaths are the result of the driver or passenger not wearing a helmet.

Statistics show that in 2010, 11 percent of all accidents on roads in the United States involve motorcycles. In more than half of all motorcycle accidents that involve a fatality, there is more than one vehicle involved. Motorcycle fatalities occurred as a result of the bike colliding with another vehicle in more than 49 percent of accidents. Only 6 percent of motorcycle fatalities were caused by the bike being rear ended or struck from behind. Over 42 percent of all motorcycle deaths involve at least 2 vehicles.

In accidents involving motorcycle fatalities, 38 percent, or roughly 757 riders, the cause of the crash was another vehicle turning left into the path of the cyclist. This included times when the cyclist was turning, passing another vehicle or was traveling legally within their own lane.

In 2011, 1,791 motorcycle accidents resulting in a fatality involved only one vehicle. It was determined in these cases that approximately 48 percent of motorcycle riders involved in this type of crash were speeding. Crash reports support the claim that at least 42 percent of accidents that fall into this category involved drivers who had a blood alcohol content of 0.08 or higher. When taking into consideration all motor vehicles accidents, at least 33 percent of riders killed in motorcycle accidents were found to be under the influence of alcohol.

The amount of miles traveled by all types of vehicles in the United States is staggering. It is estimated that according to the figures, motorcycle riders are at least 30 percent more likely to be involved in an accident that involves a fatality. The steadily increasing number of riders and bikes that take to the highways each year, will continue to cause those numbers to fluctuate.

While the number of miles, the number of bikes and riders steadily begin to increase on the country’s highways, the awareness of the public also will continue to rise. Many states are repealing helmet laws and giving the option for safety back to the rider. This has proven to increase the number of motorcycle fatalities each year. When given the option to ride without a helmet, however, many riders will choose to ride without one. They claim that many helmets, especially full face ones, obstruct their view and limit their ability to hear.

Each rider who takes to the road on the back of a motorcycle is willing to bear the risk of riding without a helmet or, if they choose to wear a helmet, bearing the risk of putting their lives in the hands of other motorists.

Seed Germination Rates

The rate at which grass seed germinates depends upon a number of different conditions. Soil-to-seed contact, the temperature of the air, consistency and presence of moisture, age, and the quality of the seeds all contribute to the germination process.

When planting, spreading and fertilizing grass seed, it is important to take into consideration the fact that different kinds of seeds germinate at different times. Seeds will not germinate until soil conditions reach a specific temperature. Sowing them too early can cause them to rot or result in poor growth. If one plants too late in the season, the seeds may germinate, but they might not survive the winter.

Germination rates for some of the more popular types of grass:

Annual ryegrass takes from 5 to 10 days to germinate. The optimum time to plant it is from mid-August through the last week of September. It is possible to seed up to the middle of October, but success depends on the weather, in particular, the further North one is. In order to germinate properly, the soil should be sufficiently moist. Germination is delayed when soil conditions are too dry.

Bahia grass takes from 14 to 28 days to germinate. This type of grass does not do well in cold or shade. When grown in full sunlight, it forms a thick grass carpet that is tough enough for most foot traffic. Bahia grass is a hearty grass that tolerates poor soil quite well.

Bermuda grass takes from 10 to 30 days to germinate. Bermuda grass does best when it is planted in spring to late spring or early summer, since it is a warm season turf grass. The ideal time to plant is when soil temperatures reach points above 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

Buffalo grass takes from 14 to 30 days to germinate. This type of grass is grown by seed scattering on broken up ground. It can be planted in the spring, all the way through fall. An optimum soil condition for Buffalo grass is sandy loam with acidic conditions. It can grow on land that is too acidic for other types of grasses.

Centipede grass takes from 14 to 21 days to germinate. Centipede grass is a creeping, slow growing grass indigenous to China and territory in Southeast Asia. The short stems that are characterized by this grass resemble centipedes. The best time to plant low maintenance Centipede grass is during spring and summer. It requires low fertilization and is drought tolerant.

Hard Fescues takes from 7 to 14 days to germinate. Fescue grasses are cool season grasses that germinate best in soil temperatures that are between 50° and 65° Fahrenheit. Optimal planting time for fescue is in the fall or spring after temperatures have reached at least 60°. High summer temperatures can cause fescue grasses to become dormant. Therefore, it is not advisable to plant during this time.

Kentucky Bluegrass requires from 14 to 30 days for germination. When planting Kentucky Bluegrass, it is advisable to use a mix of three different varieties of bluegrass seeds to assure greater success. Perennial Ryegrass is frequently added as a component to help establish a bluegrass lawn.

Injuries Related to Garage Doors

Injuries Related to Garage DoorsProduct related accidents number in the tens of millions each year. At last count, the average was determined to be 34 million injuries or deaths due to these accidents and these types of incidents are greatest in people ages 1 thru 36 where they outnumber cancer and heart disease deaths.  Garage door accidents rank near the top of the list.  More garage door safety tips can be found at this website.

On April 7th, 2013 a little girl (3 years old) in Waldorf, Maryland was able to reach the control button in her family’s garage. She tried to run under the garage door as it was coming down. Her mother, hearing the garage door but no one arriving to the house, went out to check. Her daughter was dead under the door from asphyxiation.

Most Common Types of Garage Door Accidents

  • Pinch/Crush in Section of door: Such injuries were fingers crushed in the sections and could result to amputation.
  • Falling Doors: Falling doors any reason
  • DIY: Person working on the door; self-installation or repair
  • Sharp Edges: Cuts and lacerations from installation parts or tracks
  • Glass: Window glass on garage doors cracks and causes cuts and lacerations
  • Spring: Spring release or parts of skin/body stuck in extended spring
  • Other types of Entrapment: Fingers and other body parts stuck between rollers and tracks.
  • Race to the Door: People attempting to race the door before it shuts (see example above)
  • Riding the Door: Children who hold onto the door and ride it and down.

A 2007 study found that the types of injuries above numbered 13, 325 with Pin/Crush accidents being number one (7557) and riding the door incidents to be the least common (89).

A Significant Improvement in Garage Door Accidents in the Last 30 years

Between 1975 and 1993 more than 85 children died or suffered permanent brain damage due to garage door accidents. Those are just the deaths. Thousands more were severely injured and maimed.

In 1993 the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) made it mandatory for all automatic garage doors have a built in reverse or stop mechanism when produced. These mechanisms are built so that when an object (car, person, child, pet, etc.) enters the garage doors path it will automatically stop or reverse direction.

Not All Safety Mechanisms on Automatic Garage Doors are Reliable

The mechanisms include two types of safeties. One, photoelectric sensors that are place on garage door jams and sidewalls so that when an object moves in front of it the safety mechanism will kick in. Secondly, pressure sensitive sensors are installed on the bottom of the garage doors so that when it comes against an object the safety reverse or stop kicks in.

After rigorous testing the CPSC found that 40% of these doors failed to work properly. For instance, out of 50 doors tested 88% of the safety mechanisms functioned properly when coming down on a block of wood. However, when an object the size and shape of a supine child (child size cardiopulmonary resuscitation mannequin was used for this test) was placed in the garage doors path the safety mechanisms only worked 44% of the time.

Garage Door Incidents 1996 thru 2003

garage door statsOn October 7th, 2003 the CPSC published a memo that acted as an update to the garage door opener entrapment incidents. The update focused on those incidents in children under 15 years of age between the years of 1996 and 2003.

The memo is detailed and involves the finding of previous studies by the CPSC. The memo states that between August 1989 and November 1996 the total number of incidents (deaths, injuries and potential hazards) was 12. From December 1996 to December 2001 the total incidents were up to 14 and deaths rose from 0 to 4.

One final note of interest from the memo stated that of the 14 incidents in the 1996-2001 timeframe only 4 had proof of date of manufacture and those 4 were built after the CPSC safety mechanism mandate. The key to keeping these kinds incidents to a minimum would seem to be a combination of safety regulations and education on safety procedure.

The Data Behind Dog Bite Injuries in The U.S

dog-attack-statisticsImportant Facts On Dog Bites

If you have kids with pet dogs at home then you should read this article in it’s entirety. In this post I will be sharing some of the most important data regarding dog bites that everyone must be aware of.

Most Americans believe that their beloved pet dog won’t be of any harm to them - but they are highly mistaken. Research shows that a dog bite epidemic is prevailing in the United States. Although there isn’t much of a rise in the population of dogs, there is a significant increase of 37% in the number of dog bites. This proves that almost 5 million people get bitten by dogs annually among which the most frequent victims are children.

Some insurance companies even go so far as to drop home insurance for people who own certain types of dogs:

So, what is the main reason for this epidemic? Let’s find out!

  • In the 199os people had a fetish for owning pets, especially dogs. This gave rise to an approximate 35% increase in the population of dogs.
  • Almost 60% of dog attacks happen in a familiar place or mostly at home.
  • 77% of dog bite victims are those who are closely related to the dog like a friend or a family member.
  • Dogs that are treated harshly or are purposely trained to attack have the tendency to bite more often.
  • Dog bite injuries are the 5th most common cause of a hospital visit.
  • Animals-Dog-Attacks-500-300x300Although there are a few breeds that are more likely to bite like the German Shepherd, Pit Bulls, St. Bernards, etc but almost any dog can be dangerous if put into such circumstances.
  • Due to an irresponsible owner a situation might be created due to which another person gets into danger.

So, it’s necessary that the owner of the dog is a responsible one who takes good care of their dog. With adequate love and affection even a breed that is likely to bite can be converted into a timid and well-mannered pet. Here are some statistics which prove that most of the frequent targets of dog bites are children:

  • Most of the patients that needed quick medical treatment were in the age group of 2-15 years among which 5-9 years old boys had the highest incidence rate.
  • The ratio of bite victims among children vs. adults is 3:1.
  • Most of the injuries to children were on their face, neck, and head.
  • Children usually suffer from severe injuries as they are unable to save themselves from the attack.
  • Kids that are less than 4 years old are usually victims of a dog bite by a family dog and this usually occurs at home.

All this showcases that children must be careful while playing with their pet. They should not make the dog angry or irritated. If a child has been attacked by a dog then immediate medical care should be given.  Dog bite attacks can be really traumatic so proper medical care and counseling may be required to get the victim out of the distress

15.9% of Americans Without Insurance According to Gallop Poll

percent-americans-uninsured-2014A recent Gallop poll shows that 15.9% of Americans are now uninsured – a number that has gone up since 2008 when it was 14.8%. While that number has come down some in the last half of 2013, the trendline remains positive when compared to 2008.

15.9% – a hard number to swallow and represents nearly 50 million Americans.

Kenneth Thorpe of Emory University in Atlanta, GA talks about how to reduce the number of uninsured Americans:

While these numbers refer to health insurance, many Americans are also without other forms of insurance – particularly life insurance.

CNBC reports that “A 2013 study by LIMRA, formerly known as the Life Insurance and Market Research Association, found that while 85 percent of consumers say people need life insurance and 65 percent say they personally need it, just 62 percent actually have policies. And a quarter of those who have a policy think it is too small.”

In addition to health and life insurance, the C. Walter Searle Insurance Agency in Nutley NJ talks about the other types of insurances that every individual should have.

5 Most Important Insurance Policies for Every Individual

Each and every one one of us wants to have a stable future. But what if something happens and everything we’ve worked for disappears in a split second? That is why we should get ourselves insured – to avoid having to go through all that. In today’s market, however, we are being offered several different types of insurance plans, leaving us wondering what to get. Well, there are five basic insurance policies every individual should consider buying.

Health Insurance

Yu need to have health insurance now more than ever. More and more diseases are being discovered, and what’s more is that some pathogens, as well as people, are already starting to become resistant to certain types of drugs. If you’re not careful, your medical expenses might reach an all-time high, so you will need the financial support to help you overcome your health situation.

Life Insurance

Thinking about life insurance can be pretty hard, but it is necessary. Especially when your kids are still too young and you’re the breadwinner of the family, you need to make sure that your family is well taken care of in case you die prematurely. In addition to that, burial and mortuary fees will also be covered.

Homeowners Insurance

Your home is one of your biggest investments, so it makes all the sense in the world to protect it against natural calamities and other unfortunate events. If you don’t have your own home and are only renting out an apartment, you should also shop for a good renter’s insurance policy to compensate for damage to personal property or stealing of valuable items.

Auto Insurance

Another one of your big investments is your car. You will want to make sure it’s insured in the unlikely event that it gets trashed or stolen, or if you get into an accident. There are an estimated 6 million car accidents that occur in the US each year, with a huge percentage of these accident and deaths caused by DUIs. So even if you drive safely, it’s best if you still get insured.

Disability Insurance

There might also come a time when we end up suffering from disabilities due to accidents or illnesses, and we wouldn’t be able to work for a living. Buying disability insurance will help compensate for lost income, and the great things about it is that it can cover any kind of disability, may it be partial or total and permanent or temporary.

Skin Cancer Statistics

Skin Cancer StatisticsSkin cancer is one of the most widespread cancers in the world. It is also one of the most easily treated. Over two million people a year are diagnosed with skin cancer.  Basal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent type of cancer, but it is also the least likely to cause death. If left untreated, it can result in scars that leave a person disfigured.

Squamous cell carcinomas are next in line after basal cell carcinoma. With over 700,000 people being diagnosed each year with this type of cancer, only two percent died from the disease in 2012. Over the past thirty years, the number of squamous cell carcinomas have risen by over 200 percent in the United States. Almost 50 percent of every American who reaches the age of 65 will have had either a basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma at least once in their lifetime.

Most people automatically assume that skin cancer is only caused by excessive exposure to direct, intense sunlight. While this is partly true, exposure to harsh chemicals, contaminants and environmental pollutants can also cause skin cancers and lesions to form. Constant exposure to carcinogens found in cigarette smoke, noxious fumes, fertilizers and pesticides can disrupt the growth of skin cells causing them to produce abnormal tissue.


Tanning is the most avoidable activity that has been proven to cause skin cancer. It is estimated that one out of every 25 people who tan will develop some form of precancerous lesion that will eventually turn into a basal cell carcinoma. The main risks associated with tanning are:

  • Basal cell carcinoma risk increases by over 73 percent if a person tans only 6 times a year
  • Almost 25 percent of all basal cell carcinomas could be avoided if indoor tanning was eliminated
  • Tanners who visit the salon often will receive over 12 times the annual amount of UVA rays over someone who spends time outside in natural sunlight
  • Over 76 percent of carcinomas reported to in 18 to 29 years olds was blamed on tanning beds

hatandsunglassesEven individuals who only go occasionally are still placing themselves at extremely high risk for either of the carcinomas or melanomas. Although treatment options are available, the most effective way to control any type of skin cancer is to protect yourself when in the sun and eliminate your exposure to the known carcinogens.

Treatment plans

In 2010, it cost over $2.36 billion dollars to treat skin cancer in the United States. $249 million of that amount was directly related to care for the elderly who suffered from various types of skin cancer. With the advancement of various forms of treatments, medications, preventative measures and the choice to follow a healthier lifestyle has helped to increase the survival rate dramatically for individuals who have been diagnosed with melanoma.

From 1950 to 1954, the survival rate for persons diagnosed with melanoma was average at best at approximately 49 percent. From 1996 to 2003, the numbers have skyrocketted, jumping from less than average to an incredibly high 92 percent. The key to surviving skin cancer is prevention as well as measuring the effectiveness of state of the art treatment plans and protocols.

How to Find Out How Much a Home Sold For Online

How to Find Out How Much a Home Sold For OnlineSales prices and owners are matters of public record and may be accessed by anyone

This data is freely accessible either in person at a local municipal office, online at a site established by the municipality or on an online information site such as Trulia ( A third and better way is to contact the local real estate agent who handled the transaction to obtain that data directly.

Municipalities generally have offices set up to carry and preserve up-to-date the on local sales, including individuals involved and monies exchanged.

These transfer details comprise the land history of a particular geographic area. From these seemingly unrelated bits of information, it is possible to compile a social history of an area which gives a snapshot of the area’s growth, economy, and political climate. When these records can be searched online, the individual wishing to buy in the area can form a partial picture of the area from viewing the online or actual data.

Local government real estate offices, such as the county clerk, the local tax assessor’s office, local zoning office, and municipal +building inspector.

Local real estate and tax records, many of which are now online, can aid individuals who wish to review the selling prices of houses, the age of the homes, the frequency of transfers indicating neighborhood stability, the area schools, and area recreational facilities.

Authoritative national information services exist which also carry these property values listings

Trulia is one of the national sites containing real estate data which can assist a buyer in finding the homes in an area which would fit her criteria and which she could afford. This site provides comparables on homes in a given area, including sales price and record owners, as well as additional information about houses and property.

Discovering the name and contact information on the real estate agent involved may be an additional help

Having access to a contact person who has been involved in the sale or listing of a particular home can give a potential new buyer information about sales in the area. The real estate agent has access to a variety of tools which can help a buyer or seller, including all MLS records for the area and other pertinent financial, zoning, and other applicable data for the location. A properly trained agent will also be aware of the import of all of that information as it relates to a future purchase or sale.

A local real estate attorney can also assist in the search

Bidding on a homeA local real estate closing attorney who has contacts within the local mortgage community can also be a source of information for property values and land use issues. That attorney may also be able to connect potential buyers with area appraisers, land surveyors, and other affiliated service providers within the local real estate community as well as suggesting additional online resources which could be helpful in the property search.

Online records also provide a good resource for a quick title search to confirm ownership

Most local land records offices, such as the county register, are now online and can be accessed from anywhere. These land records reveal the chain of title, or list of owners, to interested viewers. Title examination is part skill, part art; individuals who are not experienced at it may wish to bring along a friend—lawyer or real estate professional—who will understand what pops up on the screen. Property ownership, prices, tax values, and more can be ascertained through that search. The more research that is done on a property prior to purchase, the more informed the buyer will be.

A Motorist’s Guide to

A Motorist’s Guide to DMV.orgYou may be familiar with, but what you need to know is that it’s different from the actual DMV or Department of Motor Vehicles. This website is actually another way for people to learn more about the DMV and its services, and it also helps the public obtain records and reports that you might need from the agency. If you want to know more about the site and how to easily request whatever documents you need (such as copies of driver history, vehicle registration, title lien search and the like, or even your vital records) through the site, read on.

More About
is a private organization that aims to simplify and offer government-related information to the American public. The site was launched in 1999 and has served more than 400 million people since then. Through the website, you won’t have to line up for hours at motor vehicle agencies or call them several times, waiting for personnel to accommodate you.

In order to bring such information to the public and, in a way, helping the DMV bring their services to people, gets their information from the different DMV sites. That means you can count on the site to give you accurate and up-to-date information. And not only do they provide you with an array of driving information, the team also dedicates their efforts to bringing you information on green transportation initiatives.

Services Offered by

The site makes it a whole lot easier for you to apply for driving permits and licenses, sign up for in-class and online driver’s ed course, prepare yourself for practice tests and other related services. also allows you to register your vehicles and process renewals and replacement, title transfers, license plates and even car insurance. The site can also give you tips on how to handle traffic tickets, suspended licenses, accidents, violations and warrants. What’s more is that it can help you out with buying and selling cars, as well as guide you through the process of applying for an auto loan.

Requesting Records

Some of the documents or information the can help you with include vehicle history reports (VHR), driving records or motor vehicle reports (MVR), criminal record checks, background checks, credit reports court records and vital records. All you have to do is follow the steps they provide you. For other information, they can also direct you to your state’s own DMV website. The beauty of everything is that you get to process things much faster since you get to do it in the comfort of your own home, at your own time, and you don’t have to wait in line.

Accessing Case and Docket Information through PACER

Accessing Case and Docket Information through PACERCourts usually create a case file that contains a docket sheet and all other documents filed in relation to a particular court case. In 1988, a system was created so that libraries and offices can obtain such information. This system is known as PACER or Public Access to Court Electronic Records. And it was in 2001 that PACER was made available online by the federal judiciary. So if you’re in need of case and docket information from Federal appellate, district or bankruptcy courts, read on to find out how you can be able to access that data.

Addressing FAQs Regarding Pacer

PACER allows you to find information about a court case which has been filed from anywhere in the US. Even if you do not have any recollection of its case number or the court where that particular case was filed, the system can easily help you with your search. Whether you’re a lawyer, a researcher, a teacher or just a curious individual, this system is available to anyone who wishes to use it, so long as they create an account. As for fees, you will be charged with $0.10 per page. However, if the court documents you asked for do not reach $15 per quarter, the charges will be waived, thus you are given the documents for free.

The system can be accessed 24/7, and the information provided is usually updated as each case is filed by the courts electronically each day. You do need to know, however, that PACER abides by policies that require personal indentifiers to be removed or redacted. This ensures that private information is still protected even when court documents are made available to the public.

Obtaining the Information that You Need from PACER

PACER provides the public with a case locator which gets its information data which every court in the country enter into the PACER server on a daily basis. Using it is fairly simple. You only have to fill out the case locator form with whatever information you can provide, and the system will provide you with cases that closely match your search criteria. It’s that easy. And if you think the file you’ve opened isn’t updated, don’t worry. PACER usually provides you with a link to a CM/ECF (Case Management/Electronic Case Files) page that hold the updated information.

You can also make use of the court information browser to make your search a lot easier or if you are in need of information regarding a particular court. So in case you already know where a court case had been filed, you can proceed to the court information system instead of using the case locator. This browser contains a list of all appellate courts, their court codes, as well as the dates of the earliest and most recent cases filed on the PACER database. Clicking on one of those names listed will direct you to that court’s website. And there you will be able to get the information you need.